I have a confession to make. I have fallen in love with Roda. What is Roda, you may ask? Well I’m glad you asked, because I’m here to tell you all about it. 🤓
Roda is a web toolkit—which is basically another way of saying it’s a web framework. But the reason the author of Roda, Jeremy Evans, likes to call it a toolkit is because it’s really the thing you use to construct the thing you need to build a web application. You start with a toolkit, and end up with a framework: the precise framework your application truly requires.
Roda’s stated goals are simplicity, reliability, extensibility, and performance. And those are the very reasons why I have become a Roda stan.
Let me elaborate.
The Barrier to Entry is Very Low
In other words, a simple app that you build with Roda is indeed very simple.
In fact, the simplest Roda application can fit into a single file. That’s how easy it is to get started with Roda. And I love that because so much of my mindset these days, so much of my ethos as a web developer, is trying to find or build tools which are fascinatingly simplistic at first glance. How close can we get to a small file with a little bit of code in it? Maybe that’s all you need to do. 😄
What I like about Roda is that the mental model you need to get started with fits into that “early stage” ease of use. The routing blocks within Roda’s “routing tree” are so immediately accessible, they look a bit like individual serverless functions—only without the serverless, or the functions. 😜 In the end, you’re still just writing Ruby object-oriented code within a traditional Rack-based stack…calling out to plain Ruby objects or other parts of your frameworks like a database ORM or template renderers.
Roda Doesn’t Just Stop After Simple
Before continuing to describe Roda, it should be noted that there’s another popular, “simple” Ruby web framework called Sinatra with a long and prestigious history. In fact, the Express.js framework for Node was based on concepts from Sinatra. But the main knock against Sinatra is it’s not great at scaling up from a simple app to something more ambitious. Conceptual and performance problems begin to ensue. You’ll typically see Rubyists reaching for a more full-featured framework like Rails, or maybe Hanami. There’s sort of an expectation that Rails and Sinatra don’t occupy the same “space” within the tools available.
Whereas Roda is intended to take you all the way from greenfield starter projects to at least mid-sized, fully-featured web applications. Jeremy Evans has stated as such in the interviews and presentations he’s given. You don’t have to jump ship all of a sudden as your app grows and say, “oh no, I can’t use Roda anymore. My application is too complicated. I need to go reach for something else!” And if you do end up needing to switch frameworks as the project grows, that would likely be considered something to fix in Roda’s feature set and not at all expected.
A Plugin Architecture So Straightforward, You’ll Want to Write Your Own
Another aspect of Roda I really love is the plugin architecture. It’s very straightforward. You can start writing your own plugins right away, and you probably will. Unlike with Rails where I feel like writing a plugin or a gem, well it’s all a bit messy and complicated. I’ve worked on Rails engines—I’ve looked into how other people have written them, I’ve played around with all this stuff over the years—and sure, I can get it to work in the end but I never feel particularly satisfied with the effort.
Roda’s plugin architecture—while encompassing fewer aspects of your overall stack—to me seems very obvious and intuitive. You can extend the Roda app class itself, extend request objects, extend response objects…every surface area of Roda’s API is extremely customizable. You can even write plugins which themselves depend on other plugins and extend them for additional functionality.
The benefit here is, the more simple it is to get started writing a plugin, the more likely you’re actually going to do it. I have a sense that more people who use Roda will end up writing their own Roda plugins, as compared to people using Rails writing their own Rails plugins. I don’t have any hard proof of that, it’s just my take on the matter having used Rails heavily for well over a decade.
Y U No Like Rails?
Speaking of Rails…why even look farther afield at a toolkit like Roda? Why not just stick with Rails and the “Rails way”? Why not just continue to be a Rails developer ? I know Rails up, down, and sideways by now. Why not just keep playing in that sandbox?
Right off the bat, I want to make it clear I love many aspects of Rails even now. ActiveRecord is fantastic. (Yes I know…Sequel is a thing. But AR fits my brain like a glove. I’m just so used to it.). ActiveSupport—despite the grumblings of well-meaning Ruby OOP purists out there—I believe is a major selling point of Rails and Ruby in general. And even with everything I said above regarding plugins, it is indeed impressive that there seems to be a Rails plugin gem out there for just about anything and everything you’d ever need to build a sophisticated web application.
But at this point in time, the “VC” of MVC in Rails (you can listen to my recent podcast episode about MVC for background context) feels weak to me. It really feels aging to be quite honest. There has not been any real innovation or change around that part of Rails since the beginning of the framework. The routes file, controllers, actions, ERB views, helpers, partials—all nearly untouched in two decades! (Hotwire/Turbo is the first real update to any of this in some time, and honestly while it’s pretty cool at first glance, it also feels a little bolted on and limitations abound. Hence the need to reach for, say, CableReady. But I digress…)
The vanilla stack of Rails—the “Rails way”—when it comes to the basic request/response cycle and rendering views, well I just have a lot of complaints with it at this point. For simple actions, there’s way too much ceremony for seemingly little gain. There’s what I call an unquestioning adherence to the HTTP-inspired REST concept. As much as I do like REST overall, and as much as I would defend REST against competitors such as GraphQL, I also feel like I’ve seen a lot of what I would call “REST-induced Design Damage” (to take a page out of DHH’s playbook regarding Test-induced Design Damage).
I’ve seen REST-induced Design Damage in projects time and again, where everything you do throughout the entire app somehow has to fit into this concept of:
- Go into the routes file and create a new resource endpoint
- Go create a new controller for that endpoint
- Now you have to create the actions of the controller, like the index action and the show action and the new and the edit and the whatever
- Now you have to create the views of the actions of the controller of the endpoint 😰
- Now you have to create the partials of the forms and the models for the views of the actions of the…OMG 😱
I feel like all those bits of architecture are increasingly a total mismatch with what I’m actually trying to do. I’ve talked before about the rise of “component-based view architectures”, and more and more I’m finding that I want to orient a lot of my application architecture around what I might label “groupings of component-trees + state” — rather than HTTP resources with controllers and subsequent page templates associated with those controllers and those controller actions. There’s so much ceremony to get to the point where all I really want is to have this tree of components for some specific part of my application, and within that tree of components there are various well-defined components which might have their own individual lifecycles on both the server and the client.
However you want to slice it, I really feel like component-based view architecture has rejiggered how we think of the architecture of a web application, and HTTP resources via REST and the controllers and the views associated with them that you see in the vanilla Rails stack is sort of at odds with those ideas. Even while Turbo Frames and Streams start to break apart the traditional concepts of Rails views, they don’t go nearly far enough. As I’ve stated, they feel sort of tacked-on to Rails, rather than Rails being fully-rearchitected to support Turbo concepts from the bottom to the top of the stack.
Something that’s emblematic of Rails’ “views malaise”, and honestly it continues to trouble me to this day, is the whole ViewComponent fiasco. When GitHub came up with their ViewComponent library, it seemed right at first like it would be folded directly into Rails. In fact it was originally called
ActionView::Component. Wow! Rails would gain the idea of creating new isolated, previewable, testable components for views! Progress!
And then, thud. From what I can gather, GitHub backed out of the merger at the behest of Basecamp/DHH. View components did not become part of vanilla Rails. And in my opinion, the impulse to refuse something like components entering the Rails lexicon is very troubling. Instead of seeing innovation, we saw entrenchment. In the web industry today where frontend UI design is quite literally all about components, Rails has become a dinosaur by comparison.
(One thing Rails did do right is it added the ability for any third-party component system to exist by augmenting the
render method within views. So by calling
render any_ruby_object_here in a view, the
render_in method of the Ruby object gets called automatically with the view context as the first argument and an optional block to capture. This is such a powerful concept, we adopted the
render_in convention for Bridgetown’s view layer. At this point, I think it should be considered a standard convention across the Ruby ecosystem.)
All right, so that’s my take on Rails, but…what does any of this have to do with Roda?
Well, it’s true that Roda also doesn’t offer any of this componentized view architecture stuff I’m talking about. But the thing about Roda is it’s extremely extensible. Out of the box, it doesn’t even have a view layer! You have to load the
render plugin explicitly, by choice. Which means…there’s literally nothing stopping you from building your own view layer for Roda to your exact specifications.
And that’s exactly what we did for Bridgetown’s Roda integration. Bridgetown’s own view layer, including components—even Lit-based web components!—becomes Roda’s view layer. More on that in just a moment.
The Need for Roda Distributions
To recap, I really love Roda due to its stated goals: simplicity, reliability, extensibility, and performance. I’ve been using Roda (along with Bridgetown) to date for a variety of simple apps, and there’s also a more complicated app in the works that’s not publicly available at the moment—a port of a “newsfeed reader” app I originally wrote in Rails. I brought a lot of the concepts from the original Rails app over to a new Roda application which is part of a Bridgetown installation overall, and so far it’s a pretty sweet setup. Hoping to open source it later this year…
So while I personally haven’t yet written a “large” application in Roda, I can see the path forward. I’ve done enough experimenting at this point to know what I would do, how all the pieces would fit together.
But therein lies the rub.
You can get started using Roda, and simple things are indeed simple, but which Roda will you end up with in the end? Eventually you’ll need what I call a “distribution of Roda”. You’ll need your application’s “fullstack framework” set up in a particular manner. Merely using “pure Roda” by itself, without any configured plugins or extra configuration, is not enough to actually create a fully-featured web application with a lot of complexity. In fact the documentation makes that point abundantly clear. It’s by design: instead of starting with a huge framework with a plethora of various sub-frameworks configured and set up waiting for you to maybe use one day (aka Rails), you can start out with a much simpler architecture and then slowly build things up bit by bit over time.
Nevertheless, you’ll probably want to look at some kind of “distribution” or starter kit or example stack or whatever to get a sense of what’s possible and avoid reinventing the wheel. Jeremy Evans promotes an example stack of a Roda application which features multiple route files and a database configuration via Sequel and live reloading when files change and various view templates set up and all that. But…it’s an opinionated take on a canonical Roda stack, and I don’t necessarily agree with those opinions. I have my own distribution of Roda if you will, and that’s essentially what Bridgetown is turning into.
Roda is so malleable, you can take it in any number of directions in terms of architecture—particularly on the view side which is where my primary interest lies. You can push it in the direction of a Rails-style architecture, sure. Or you can push it in an entirely different direction.
Bridgetown’s Spin on Roda
What I’m trying to do as I work on the integration of Roda into Bridgetown is that when you create a Bridgetown site, you’re also creating a Roda application. It’s the culmination of what I’ve been calling the DREAMstack (Delightful Ruby Expressing APIs & Markup), where you can start with a very simple website containing just a few static pages with Markdown content or whatever, and then you can start to mix in more advanced component trees—”islands”—using a combination of Ruby components and web components, and then on top of that write corresponding backend code with this “not-serverless-functions-but-they-look-kinda-like-serverless functions” paradigm that Roda affords.
This way you have a clear path for starting simple and then scaling up to more sophisticated, interactive, large applications. It’s an entire spectrum of tooling at your fingertips. We can even pull in “bits” of Rails as needed where it makes total sense. (As I previously mentioned, ActiveRecord remains to this day my ORM of choice!)
While the dynamic file-based routing system we’ve provided in Bridgetown is a pretty great way to get started with server-based routes after working with static resources, something I’ve recently started to experiment with—which is perhaps a bit bonkers but it’s all in the interest of collapsing layers and reducing conceptual complexity—is instead of defining a new Roda route/file and then in that route saying “oh, now I want to render out this particular component” …what if a component itself could have a Roda route associated with it? Within that route you could update state, talk to a database, whatever you need to do, and then just immediately re-render the component via that route and update the frontend instantly. (In case you’re starting to think I’m nuts here, there’s prior art for this very concept.)
There’s so much you can do now as part of a truly componentized view architecture. And I don’t want to just bolt this on top of a traditional Ruby framework. I want to have a framework which feels like it was invented in the age of components. My hope is that Bridgetown will endeavor to push the envelope in this area over the next several months and even years.
So What Would It Take for Roda to Win?
OK, I fully admit the title of this article is tongue-in-cheek. I don’t think Roda has to or should “win”—but neither do I think any other framework should win! That said, I do want to see the Roda community grow and thrive. I want to see more examples out in the wild, more plugins, more “distributions”. Let a hundred flowers bloom.
What does “modern” web architecture look like right now, today? What could it look like? What might work differently? What might be best left untouched? (If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it!) In other words, start from lofty end goals and blue-sky thinking, and then work backwards to create the sorts of frameworks that we need now and into the future.
That’s essentially what I’m trying to do with the Bridgetown + Roda distribution.
But I’ll be honest. For certain kinds of applications. I’m sure it’s going to be ludicrous. It would be absurd to use Bridgetown + Roda for that particular app. That’s fine. I have no problem with that. Use “vanilla” Roda. Use Rails. Heck, use Hanami! Go for it. That’s totally fine.
I do fervently believe however there are other classes of applications, particularly websites which have public-facing, content-heavy aspects to them, where I feel like using Rails or some other traditional framework or even vanilla Roda would be totally ill suited to that. I think there’s a substantial niche where the Bridgetown + Roda distribution with its very specific feature set might prove to be an ideal solution for those particular projects. Educational sites with paywalls. E-commerce solutions. News/social/publishing apps. Listing-style sites with lots of forms. Live dashboards acting upon disparate datasets. Marketing sites with a tight coupling to advanced headless CMSes. I could go on!
(However, if you’re looking to build a straight-up SaaS app or platform for a well-defined industry…Rails. Always…and maybe forever. For what Rails is best at, it remains the undefeated champion.)
Whichever framework you end up using, at the end of the day I hope it’s built on top of Ruby. That’s always the primary consideration for me. Over time, it’s not that I want to see Roda “supplant” Rails and or even take a larger slice of the same-sized pie. I want to see Roda (and Bridgetown too) help grow the pie entirely. I want to see Ruby-based technologies reach into farther corners of the overall web industry.
I believe it’s possible. Do you?
“Ruby is simple in appearance, but is very complex inside, just like our human body.”
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I’m very excited to have Ayush on the show today to talk about all things fullstack web dev, his new book The Rails & Hotwire Codex, and why “vanilla” is awesome!